Friday, May 22, 2020

Sprawling Gridlock - 1102 Words

The California Dream has been hacked in everybodys mind as the paradise on earth. Everybody in the world has at least once dreamt of going to California and live their dream. California is a prosperous land with beautiful nature, and last but not least, a land of opportunities. The California Dream consists of a big house with a beautiful backyard surrounded by a pictural landscape, sunny beaches and great acquaintances. But further than esthetics, Californian Dream prevails fast wealth and fame. California is perceived as a place of new beginnings where â€Å"working hard and playing hard† becomes a great moto. As once the historian W.Brands stated, â€Å"[...], California is the new dream of instant wealth, won in a twinkling by audacity and good†¦show more content†¦Its population increased by 48% within few years. The expansion of cities resulted in destroying unbuilt and farm lands to further the constructions. Landowners with land interfering with â€Å"planne d residential communities† were forced to give up their lands and see them destroyed. As the author states, families such as Warnes were forced to see their family lands bought and built. Even though such intact lands are rare in the area and beneficial to the population as somewhere to connect with nature, entrepreneurs prefer the economical profit. The suburbs expand and with every new family moving in the area, more cars are purchased adding to the gridlock. The United State has always been weak in public transportation and mass transit tools. California was once supposed to be different and revolutionized. Trolleys connecting the suburbs to the city and business districts was the main reason why cities expanded vertically. These mass transit tools organized the transits in an extremely environmentally friendly way. But the venue of cars and the thought of independence flattered americans pushing them to each buy a car, synonym of their independence. Now the trains and conn ecting public transportations have practically disappeared and are irrelevant. The simple equation of further houses connected to the cities by mass transportation was annulled with the aggressiveness and competitivenessShow MoreRelatedControlling Chaos1778 Words   |  8 Pagesunderstanding that growth in any aspect of the economy is a grand concept. However, when growth begins to start spreading out in such a manner that it becomes uncontrollable, there is an inherent issue. Such is the case in David Carle’s essay â€Å"Sprawling Gridlock†. Carle mentions several pervading issues and problems with the rapid growth and spread of Southern California, and outlines measures taken against the expansion. Carle’s resolve and purpose of this essay is to describe and illustrate the issueRead MoreThe Issues Of The United Nations Essay951 Words   |  4 Pagesorganization’s proper role in world affairs. Critics say the crisis in Bosnia is only the latest failur e among many. â€Å"If you look at the ups and downs at the U.N. over the past fifty years, it started with very high promise, but got locked into the Cold War gridlock very early,† says John Bolton, assistant secretary of State for international organizations in the Bush administration and now president of the National Policy Forum, a Republican think tank in Washington. In Bolton’s view, the U.N. can point to

Friday, May 8, 2020

Martin Luther King Jr, Social Activist and The Fight...

Starting from 1865 to 170, the African- American race was slowly developing and advancing in the US community, but even with the abolition of slavery and voting rights, people around them still scorned at them and viewed them as an inferior and lower species. Segregation was not looked down upon in the 1905s and 1960s. African Americans were tortured verbally and even physically in these times, known as the Jim Crow era. Social activists like Martin Luther King Jr. have worked hard a dedicated their lives for the abolition and eradication of these malignant and harmful laws and actions. Martin Luther King uses his life experiences starting from his childhood to support why he opposes segregation and racism. Segregation hindered the development and advancement of African Americans in society, therefore motivating African American activists like Martin Luther King Jr. to speak out by using his life experiences to attempt to make a difference in the world. From terrible childhood memori es, speeches addressed to the community, and even his religious beliefs, Dr. King contributes his thoughts toward segregation and craves to diversify and make a change. After President Abraham Lincoln abolished slavery in 1865, the status of an African American in their community did not change at all. The white race were still continuously bothering and torturing them as they walked down the streets. Many tried to speak up but some fled form fear and other silenced by violence. The gamut of theShow MoreRelatedCivil Rights Activists: Martin Luther King Jr., Malcom X, and Huey Newton1223 Words   |  5 Pages American icon and former civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. once said, I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character. This quote speaks volumes about the message that he is trying to convey towards society regarding racism. He is ba sically saying not to judge others just because of their skin color, but love them for who they are. We should not beRead MoreDr. Martin Luther King Jr. Essay1134 Words   |  5 Pagesthis paper, I will focus on the themes of racism, human rights, and power and how history makers such as Martin Luther King Jr., Nelson Mandela, and Mahatma Gandhi (just to name these few) helped to redress them to an extent and how theirs efforts shape contemporary events. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was born on 15 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia and is one of the most remembered Human Rights Activists in America history. He is remembered for his nonviolent fight for racial equality and justice to the blackRead MoreAfrican Americans During The 20th Century1261 Words   |  6 PagesThroughout the past couple hundred years, countless battles have been fought in order to eliminate race as a social divider. Perhaps the most influential time frame for African-Americans in the United States would be from 1940-1970. During this time in America, Blacks everywhere were fighting against segregation and discrimination of their race. Consequently, the timeline of events that occurred during this time uncovers the numerous battles that African-American people fought in order to gain theirRead MoreMartin Luther King Jr.: An American Hero1193 Words   |  5 Pages This inequality was due to the excessive racism engraved in American society, which was rooted from the times of slavery in the American South. African Americans went through generations of struggle to get freedom and equality. They first fought for the abolishment of slavery and then the status of a citizen. However, this still did not create a society of equality. African Americans had to fight for social, political, and economic equality in a social movement known as the Civil Rights MovementRead MoreMartin Luther King J. And Malcolm X Essay1103 Words   |  5 PagesAfrican Americans in the United States began their fight for civil rights. Among them were brave individuals who led the quest for equality regardless of the consequences that followed. Two of the most famous civil rights activists were Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X. They were both influential leaders of the civil rights movement who strove for a common goal, which was to create equality for African Americans. Although Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X were both authoritative figures inRead MoreThe Preacher and th e Fighter1200 Words   |  5 PagesFighter: A Fight for Equality Present day United States of America. Freedom, racial equality, united with all its citizens. The United States of America as we know it would never have existed if racial equality was not given to the colored people of the country. There was a time in this nation’s history when the people of the United States were not equal. There was a time when colored people did not have well-funded facilities in comparison to the white people. Martin Luther King Jr. and MalcolmRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement in the 1960’s Essay1269 Words   |  6 Pagesdifference. The 1960s helped open up hope and expectations for Black Americans. One of the most prominent men of his time, Martin Luther King Jr. was known as ?A national hero and a civil rights figure of growing importance? (Discovering 1). ?Martin Luther King Jr. aroused whites and blacks to protest racial discrimination, poverty and war? (Compton?s 244). On August 28, 1963 King made one of his most influential speeches ever at the March on Washington. His ?I have a dream? speech had a major impactRead MoreAnalysis Of Walt Whitman s Works And Pieces1452 Words   |  6 PagesJustin Polkowitz Mrs. Ryan Academic English 2 26 April 2015 Social Change Research Paper These writers and activists are strongly opposed to slavery, and oppression and want to obtain the same rights, social status, and equality as everyone else. They have identical goals that they want to fulfill and are well aware of the controversy that they will not ignore that society has to collaborate to resolve problems and issues in order to unify the nation as one. It is important that all races areRead MoreEssay Life and Work of Martin Luther King Jr.2061 Words   |  9 PagesMartin Luther King Jr. was a civil rights activist from the 1950’s to 1968 with a strong religious background. A strong advocator for all minorities, King did all in his power to end barriers of community; poverty, racism and militarism. The principle he focused more on, however, was racism. King defined racism as prejudice, apartheid, ethnic conflict, anti-Semitism, sexism, colonialism, homophobia, ageism, or discrimination against disabled groups and stereotypes. Later turning his efforts toR ead MoreVietnam War and American Culture1684 Words   |  7 Pages Vietnam Wars Impact on American Culture Donna Whittle DeVry University Introduction to Humanities I. Introduction and Thesis Statement In the 1960’s America went through many cultural changes. Martin Luther King Jr., a civil rights activist, delivered his famous, â€Å"I have a dream† speech. African Americans were fighting for peace, freedom and equality. The United States was involved in the Vietnam War, committed to anti-communism. African Americans were deployed to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Explore the ways in which Willy Russell makes use of language differences in act 2 scene 2 Free Essays

Willy Russell wrote the play in 1982 and was one of the best he wrote because of the fact that he emphasizes the differences between the rich and poor. Willy Russell was born in Whiston, near Liverpool, in 1947. He left school at the age of 15 where he worked as a hairdresser until he was 20 years old, where he then returned to school to complete his education. We will write a custom essay sample on Explore the ways in which Willy Russell makes use of language differences in act 2 scene 2 or any similar topic only for you Order Now Their he began to write his first play called Blind Scouse, which was taken to the Edinburgh festival and noticed by a representative of the Everyman Theatre. They then went on to produce the world premieres of many of his plays, most of which transferred successfully to the west end. Throughout this play dramatic irony is used, this is where the audience knows something one or more of the caracters on stage don’t know. Willy Russell uses this to emphasize the differences between the classes more. Stage directions are very important for somebody who has not seen the play and is just reading the play, this is because they help you create mental picture of whats going on in the play. The play repeatedly shows cultural differences though the way the boys speak throughout the play. An example of this is when Edward says â€Å"your a fuck off† showing his misunderstanding in the use of swear words, this contrasts to hen Micky says â€Å"take a flying fuck at a dounut† which shows his understanding and exposure to swear words as he has grown up. Another contrast in the boys language is when Micky says â€Å"It’s a thingy, init† referring to a dictionary which shows lack of education because he doesn’t know what a dictionary is. Where as when Edward says â€Å"Fantastic, I will look that up in the dictionary when i get home†, Edwards understanding of what a dictionary is and how it is used shows his intelligence and class. The audience would think that Edward is very intellectual in contrast to Mickey. One thing that the audience would be taken a back by would e the part in the play when Linda first sees Edward and says he’s â€Å"handsome† even though Mickey and Edward are identical twins! This is because Edward has a overall better appearance than Mickey because he comes from a big house, has smart clothes and is clean which contrasts with Mikeys trodden down clothes and dirty appearance. I think Willy Russell is trying to say that people who come from a richer culture have a better chance at most things in life as is shown in this example. Another theme which repeatedly crops up during the play is the superstition and is shown in the beginning of the play where Mrs. Johnstone says â€Å"You never put new shoes on the table† which prompts Mrs. Lyons to ask â€Å"So, your superstitious? † to which Mrs. Johnstone replies â€Å"No I’m not, you just don’t put new shoes on the table. † This shows an lack of understanding in the lower class because Mrs. Johnstone didn’t even understand what superstition was. The audience would see how Willy Russell shows the difference between upper and lower class citizens. Adults are used thoughout the play to represent the boys, make the play more humorous and also because of the fact that some people might be offended if they see young boys swearing on stage. How to cite Explore the ways in which Willy Russell makes use of language differences in act 2 scene 2, Essays

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Pie In The Sky The Brigid Berlin Story Essays - Brigid Berlin

Pie In The Sky: The Brigid Berlin Story Among the oddballs and exhibitionists who clustered around Andy Warhol in the 1960's and 70's perhaps the scariest was Brigid Berlin, a chubby, motormouthed rebel from an upper-crust New York City family who relished the way her underground celebrity embarrassed her proper conservative parents. Her father, Richard Berlin, a friend of Richard M. Nixon and an admirer of Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, ran the Hearst Corporation, which he had helped save from bankruptcy in the 40's. Her mother, Honey, was an elegant, ladies-who-lunch-style socialite of the old school. Ms. Berlin was one of Warhol's favorite telephone companions, and she taped hundreds of hours of their conversations, some of which were adapted into a play called Pork that flaunted the Berlin family strife. Like many of Warhol's acolytes, she fancied herself an artist and was one of the first art world personages to work with a portable tape recorder and Polaroid snapshots (she specialized in double exposures). Her more notorious antics included a theatrical performance in which she telephoned her parents from the stage without their knowledge and broadcast live her mother's furious tirade about her lifestyle and choice of friends. That lifestyle included an addiction to speed (in the 1966 Warhol movie, The Chelsea Girls, she played a pill-pushing lesbian who shoots up in front of the camera) as well as an eating disorder that pushed her weight to 260 pounds. Despite her obesity, Ms. Berlin often appeared nude in Warhol's movies, displaying not a trace of self-consciousness. Excerpts from her taped conversations with Warhol and with her mother run through Pie in the Sky: The Brigid Berlin Story, Shelly Dunn Fremont and Vincent Fremont's unsettling close-up portrait of Ms. Berlin, which opens today at the Film Forum. This fascinating but somewhat repellent documentary repeatedly contrasts interviews with Ms. Berlin filmed two years ago when she turned 60 with excerpts from the mostly black-and-white Warhol films in which she radiated the aggressive ferocity of a B-movie prison matron. Much slimmer today than in the Warhol years, Ms. Berlin, who lives on the East Side of Manhattan with two dogs, looks sleek and matronly at 60. But when she reminisces, it becomes clear that she retains a lust for the spotlight along with a continuing inability to edit what comes out of her mouth. As she chattily recounts a life of squandered privilege and wasted opportunity, the movie casts a bitter chill. After all her walks on the wild side, you wonder if she has learned anything at all. Not a smidgen of wisdom or enlightenment passes from the lips of a woman whose main goals in life today seem to be keeping a neat apartment and fighting an obsession with Key lime pies (one scene shows her berating herself for having given in to that weakness and gobbling three at one sitting). Ms. Berlin emerges as someone whose life and art were determined by her own obsessive-compulsive behavior, be it consuming sweets or collecting celebrity drawings of sexual organs in a notorious scrapbook. Besides her weight, the guiding motif of her life appears to have been her controlling mother, who comes across as cold, judgmental and image-obsessed. Ms. Berlin has her fans, one of the most articulate being the director John Waters, who modeled his own informal repertory company on the Warhol crew. In his view her work with tape and snapshots led Warhol to adapt them into his repertory of techniques. He also admires her bravery for appearing nude. Because she no longer takes speed, Ms. Berlin seems less scary than distracted. Although her memory appears intact, she conveys the disengagement of someone who is either too traumatized or too self-centered to have much psychological perspective on the past. In the most revealing scene, she revisits the Chelsea Hotel, the site of some of her more outrageous antics. Growing visibly anxious, Ms. Berlin says she feels uncomfortable there and wants to leave, but she is at a loss as to why. PIE IN THE SKY: THE BRIGID BERLIN STORY Produced and directed by Vincent Fremont and Shelly Dunn Fremont; director of photography, Vic Losick; edited by Michael Levine; music by Chris Stein. At the Film Forum, 209 West Houston Street, west of Sixth Avenue, South Village. Running time: 75 minutes. This film is not rated. WITH: Brigid Berlin, Richard Bernstein, John Waters, Taylor Mead, Bob Colacello, Larry Rivers and Patricia Hearst. Arts Essays

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Research Paper

Research Paper Research Paper Matt McMahon Ms. Cooley Writing for College 16 December 2010 The Life of a New York City Fireman Every young boy has a specific person who he feels is his hero. Many of these heroes are seen on TV or in comic books. At a young age, these characters are referred to as superheroes. As these kids grow older, their views of idols change into professional sports players like Derek Jeter, Lebron James or Sidney Crosby. Once kids hit a certain age they don’t believe in the superheroes, they just have heroes from movies and sports. The funny thing is superheroes do exist and always have. Just because they cant fly and pick up buildings doesn’t mean they are any less heroic than the ones who can in comic books. When someone is in danger or in any type of life threatening situation, they depend on police officers and firefighters to be there for their safety. The system works much like how it did on cartoons or in comic books for that matter. When someone is in distress t hey call 911 who gets the information and refers it to a local fire departments dispatch. The dispatch then sends the call out to the fireman who race to report to the scene as fast as they can. Although being a firefighter is not as easy as it looks or sounds. Being a New York City firefighter is very different from any other job in the world. People go to their normal job about five days a week for about an eight hour shift. Being a firefighter isn't any normal job. The shifts research paper research paper Coming to a division three college as a student athlete was a difficult choice. This was mainly because I knew that in division three there were no athletic scholarships given, unlike division one and two. This made college more expensive for me, and definitely weighed in on my decision on what college to attend. Many people will argue that athletics are not an important part of a child and students career for many reasons. Most people who choose this viewpoint believe that it distracts the student from their academics, therefore damaging their future. The people who believe this agree that students should be studying instead of practicing their sport or playing in events. Therefore, why should athletic scholarships be given out? This would encourage students to practice even harder and longer to be able to achieve a talent good enough to be rewarded with a scholarship. Another reason people might be against athletic scholarships is because it would save the college money by not giving students free tuition. If the college did not give out athletic scholarships, they could save hundreds of thousands of dollars a year. This money could go to things such as academic tuition, building funds, or previous debts owned by the school. Although both of these arguments are valid, I believe there are strong counterarguments to each one. What many people don’t understand is that athletics encourage more than just physical toughness. I have learned that athletics have taught me much more than that; they have taught me perseverance, how to be supportive, and that hard work pays off. Also, student athletes are well rounded and have knowledge of time management. Student athletes are forced work hard in their academics in order to stay on the team. If you receive under a two point five GPA, you are ineligible to play for the team. This results in student athletes having some of the highest GPAs in colleges. When people try and Research Paper Research Paper Research Paper Why Richard Rodriguez? Why does his work catch my eye? What makes his work more prominent than other authors? I can’t persuade one to change his/her opinion on the interest of his/her author. I can however provide details on how mine is a work of art. Richard Rodriguez, a man with no shame, splendid powers of deduction, and innovative writing. My reasoning shall be revealed in due time. Rodriguez has really enthused my writing. He has given me a more creative, and more, in-depth kind of thinking in my writing. His race and his sexuality are just assets to the man with the ink. What do I mean? I mean that others could be prejudice to either his ethnicity or homosexuality. Revealing one’s identity of sexuality is crucial in a career where people throughout the world criticize it. A good example of this is, Adam Lambert. A star who was contesting in and was supposedly going to win the hit show American Idol until he revealed his sexuality. Some say he was go ing to win and others say that has nothing to do with it. Now, I deem myself as a respectful and understanding guy. Therefore, I don’t judge the man himself (why would I be writing about him if I was), I judge his work. Some of the works I will be critiquing are a few essays, Cowboys and Indians, which is one of his more recent works, Se Habla Espanol, Zero Times One and a chapter out of his most famous work, Hunger of Memory. I’ve specifically chosen articles that are spread out through his career. Even though these four articles are spread through a decade of time, it is still noteworthy to evaluate to his progression in writing. Each of these writings are different, but cover the same idea. Rodriguez is Spanish (the Mexican descent) and he is a homosexual. Is that all there is to know though? Of course it is! What else could there be to know about an author? Sarcasm, that is what modern terminology defines as being ignorant, or hilarious, or both. As I said before, Rodriguez has enthused my writing, so there must be more to him. Well, Rodriguez’s home life and family life was what you’d imagine it to be a Mexican growing up in America, tough, to say the least. Having to deal with common Research Paper Research Paper Athletic Performance Using mind body connection The mind is a powerful tool. Athletes who are able to effectively use their mind have more success than those who cannot. Athletic performance can actually be improved using the connection between the mind and the body. That mind-body connection has given athletes positive reproducible results time and time again. The only barrier in the way of the athlete is learning the process that improves athletic performance by enabling the mind-body connection. Our minds tell our bodies what to do and how to react. For instance, athletic performance increases when the athlete links the mind-body connection and visualizes the specific event in their minds several times before the actual event. An Athlete’s Secret Weapon – Visualization What can an athlete do to gain the upper hand over his or her opponent who has the same fitness level, nutrition regime, and game experience? This is where sports psychology comes into play. An athlete can rise to the next level and surpass their opponents with the use of mental preparation. Visualization, also known as guided imagery, enables an athlete to create clear detailed images in their mind that they want to manifest as reality during their game. Using imagery, an athlete can put themselves in every situation possible and practice responding successfully. The outcome is reduced anxiety and mental involvement before ever stepping onto the playing field. Developing High Levels of Confidence Confidence is the keystone to performing at your best. When athletes are confident, their mind and body are relaxed allowing them to perform at their best. A confident athlete has been defined as "being able to be positive, motivated, focused, and emotionally in control when they need to be. There are a few things that can be done to ensure you have the highest level of confidence possible. First of all, engineer your approach to competition so that you are doing things that you have already successfully done in the past. Just knowing that you done it successfully before, will give you confidence. When you are reviewing your performance in your head, see it working perfectly. A confident athlete has the belief that he/she has what it takes to be successful no matter what is happening on the field/court. The combination of confidence and a positive mind set Research Paper Research Paper JUDAISM, CHRISTINAITY & ISLAM Raquita Fleming Religion & Philosophy Father Yarisah September 2, 2013 We have so many different religions out here in today’s society there is a lot and you may wonder why we don’t have just one. Well I am here to explain why not and I will be comparing and contrasting three monotheistic religions which are: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. I will discuss the uniqueness of each religion regarding their beliefs and basic teachings. Also will be talking about each religion background information, on how they religion got started. Who were their founding fathers and how where they able to find their religion. I will explain the symbols and they kinds of food that each religion is alike and don’t eat alike. The first Religion I will talk about is Judaism it was formed 1300 B.C which is one of the most scholar date Abraham who was one of their forefathers. There is set to believe that there could be four founding fathers of Judaism. Who are God, Moses, Abraham and historical authorities? The original language of Judaism is Hebrews. The origin of Judaism is Canaan and that is a biblical name for the religion. That came about because of the Jordan and the Mediterranean River. The symbol for Judaism is the â€Å"Star of David†. The Star of David is a six pointed star made up of two triangles. Sometimes they refer the Star of David being called Megan David. Which in Judaism means the â€Å"Shield of David†? some Christians and Muslims have used the Star of David in previous years also sometimes associated with the King Of Solomon instead of King David. The sacred text is Tanakh which is an acronym of The Bible name Torah Nevi’im and Ketuvim. Our first five bibles are names after the Torah; Exodus, Numbers Leviticus, Genesis, and Deuteronomy. The place where the Jews worship is called the synagogue or sometimes the temple. There holy days are called Passover and Hanukkah. The Talmud was also the oral Torah and was compared to the rabbinical commentary. The leaders of Judaism are called Rabbis. Judaism today is much better and it is one the oldest religion that still exists today. Judaism started in a small nation by the Hebrews. So many years had passed with the Jews going through rough times. They suffered dispersion, persecution and occasional victory. As we look on the religion today we have at least 14 million Jews. Today is more complex which incorporates both nation and religion. This all comes down to strict adherence and ritual laws with more liberal attitude on religion beliefs. Judaism has been a major part in shaping the world today this is not in common western categories like race, religion, ethnicity or culture. Unlike Christians Judaism have been influenced by so many different contacts like Egyptians, Babylon and Persians. Christianity was formed 33 C.E and it was known for the traditional date for the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The founders of Christianity are Jesus, Peter and Paul. Many different scholars date the rise of Christianity as a r eligious belief system. Some of holy days are ester, Christmas, Good Friday, Palm Sunday and Ash Wednesday. Then in the first century under the leadership went over to apostles. Most Christian’s beliefs were center on the life of Jesus of Nazareth he was a teacher and he healed the first century Palestine. The symbol for Christianity is a Cross, and Dove some people claim their can be more. But the more common one is the cross that everyone can recognize. Teachings based on the themes of the kingdom of god, love of god and love of thy neighbor. We as Christians believed that Jesus rose from the dead three days after his burial, and made it possible for those who believed that sins can be forgiven and attain eternal life. The distinctive belief of mainstream of Christianity if the doctrine of Trinity. Meaning we view god as one god consisting of the three persons; the father, the son and the Holy Spirit. We as Christians Research Paper Research Paper The Atrocities at My Lai Massacre During the Vietnam War, there were lots of corruption and violence taking place. As an outcome of this war, there were many events and tragedies that are still remembered and looked back upon, but one act of cruelty stands above all the others. Because of the inhumane actions that were taken by U.S. forces, the corrupt leadership of Lieutenant Calley and the fact that this massacre was covered up from society for over a year, the My Lai massacre became know as the worst atrocity that occurred during the Vietnam War. To start off, the mass destruction that took place during the My Lai Massacre shows that this was in fact, the worst atrocity that took place during the Vietnam War. On March 16, 1968, U.S. soldiers entered the village of My Lai in northern South Vietnam. The soldiers had been searching for threats within the village, but soon determined that the women, children and elders living there, were not dangerous. ‘But rather than move on, the soldiers abruptly went on a murderous killing spree, massacring between 300 and 500 unarmed villagers over a period of several hours’ (Russell 703). Innocent unarmed people were murdered that day, with no means of protecting themselves. Hundreds of innocent people were slaughtered, â€Å"In terms of numbers of slain, the My Lai Massacre is by far the worst known U.S. atrocity case of the Vietnam War† (Cook and Martin 217). Not only did the soldiers murder hundreds of innocent people, but they also tortured them and forced them to suffer: During this time, the soldiers torched houses, raped dozens of women and children, and shot or stabbed terrified villagers who tried to escape. The American troops executed most of the villagers by lining them up in ditches and shooting them in heavy bursts of rifle fire (Hillstrom and Hillstrom 212). These inhumane actions taken by the U.S. forces in My Lai, are one of the main reasons that the My Lai Massacre is known to be the worst atrocity that occurred during the Vietnam War. This event was not only sick and cruel, but could also represent everything that was wrong with the Vietnam W ar. Ronald L. Haeberle was a photographer for the United States Army, and unfortunately, had a firsthand experience of witnessing the spiteful execution of these innocent people at My Lai. â€Å"Haeberle said that no Viet Cong were sighted nor were there any reports of Viet Cong fire in the village† (Cook and Martin 217). There was clear evidence that shows that no Viet Cong or even armed people were present when this massacre took place. â€Å"U.S. forces, Haeberle related, mechanically killed the civilians, some in their beds in huts. The murders were carried out; he said, with M-16 rifles and machine guns† (Cook and Martin 217). Not only were these people killed, but they were humiliated and treated much less than a person. It was much more than soldiers doing their duties, it was inhumane and unethical. â€Å"He said he saw as many as 30 American soldiers’ murder as many as 100 South Vietnamese civilians, many of them women or babies, many left in lifeless clumps. He describes the soldiers who did the shooting as ‘intent on what they were trying to accomplish. There was no feeling, nothing human about it. It was, for the most part, grim, though later some of the men tried to be humorous about leaving the bodies for the dogs and the rats’† (Cook and Martin 219). Soldiers recklessly lost control of themselves and took out all of their anger on the lives of these unarmed, innocent women, children and elders. GI’s forced these people to not only die, but to suffer as well. â€Å"‘The GI’s found a group of people- mothers, children, and their daughters. This GI grabbed one of the girls, in her teens, and started stripping her, playing around. They said they wanted to see what she was made of and stuff like that’† (Cook and Mart in 219). It was obvious that the U.S. soldiers acted excessively violent and took out all of their anger on innocent Research Paper Research Paper The Periodic Table and the Aufbau One of the biggest topics in the teaching and learning of chemistry is the use of the aufbau principle to predict the electronic configurations of atoms and to explain the periodic table of the elements. This method has been taught to many generations of students and is a favorite among instructors and textbooks when it comes to setting questions. In this blog I am going to attempt to blow the lid off the aufbau because it is deeply flawed, or at least the sloppy version of the aufbau. The flaw is rather subtle and seems to have escaped the attention of nearly all chemistry and physics textbooks and the vast majority of chemistry professors that I have consulted on the subject. The error comes from what may be an innocent attempt to simplify matters or maybe just an understandable slip as I will try to explain. Whatever the cause there is no excuse for perpetuating this educational myth. So what’s the problem? The aufbau method was originally proposed by the great Danish physicist Niels Bohr who was the first to bring quantum mechanics to the study of atomic structure and one of the first to give a fundamental explanation of the periodic table in terms of arrangements of electrons (electronic configurations). Bohr proposed that we can think of the atoms of the periodic table as being progressively built up starting from the simplest atom of all, that of hydrogen which contains just one proton and one electron. The other atoms differ from hydrogen by the addition of one proton and one electron. Helium has two protons and two electrons, lithium has three of each, beryllium has four of each, all the way to uranium which at that time, (1913), was the heaviest known atom, weighing in at 92 protons and 92 electrons. Neutron numbers vary and are quite irrelevant to this story incidentally. The next ingredient is a knowledge of the atomic orbitals into which the electrons are progressively placed in an attempt to reproduce the natural sequence of electrons in atoms that occur in the real world. Oddly enough these orbitals, at least in their simplest form, nowadays come from solving the Schrà ¶dinger equation for the hydrogen atom but let’s not get too sidetracked for the moment. The orbitals The different atomic orbitals come in various kinds that are distinguished by labels such as s, p, d and f. Each shell of electrons can be broken down into various orbitals and as we move away from the nucleus each shell contains a progressively larger number of kinds of orbitals. Here is the well-known scheme, First shell contains 1s orbital only Second shell contains 2s and 2p orbitals Third shell contains 3s, 3p and 3d orbitals Fourth shell contains 4s, 4p, 4d and 4f orbitals and so on. The next part is that one needs to know how many of these orbitals occur in each shell. The answer is provided by the simple formula 2ï  ¬Ã¯â‚¬  + 1 where ï  ¬ takes different values depending on whether we are speaking of s, p, d or f orbitals. For s orbitals ï  ¬ = 0, for p orbitals ï  ¬ = 1, for d orbitals ï  ¬ = 2 and so on. As a result there are potentially one s orbital, three p orbitals, five d orbitals, seven f orbitals and so on for each shell. So far so good. Now comes the magic ingredient which claims to predict the order of filling of these orbitals and here is where the fallacy lurks. Rather than filling the shells around the nucleus in a simple sequential sequence, where each shell must fill completely before moving onto the next shell, we are told that the correct procedure is more complicated. But we are also reassured that there is a nice simple pattern that governs the order of shell and consequently of orbitals filling. And this is finally the point at which the aufbau diagram, which I am going to claim lies at the heart of the trouble, is trotted out. The order of filling of

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Human Rights Law amp; Business Essay

Human Rights Law amp; Business Essay Human Rights Law Business Essay Essay Writing and Samples The following free essay sample is posted here with the hope to give you some ideas on essay writing. You may also take a look at academic tips on research paper topic ideas, term paper format, narrative essay writing and management coursework writing in our blog. Human Rights Law BusinessIt has become evident in recent years that human rights violations occur not only from states, but also from various other actors such as transnational corporations (TNCs) (Habegger Roland 2). TNCs play an important role in global economy and can use their economic capability to achieve political objectives (Habegger Roland 2). Consequently, some TNCs may misuse their influence to the extent of violating human rights in various forms (Habegger Roland 2). To avoid this, there have been various efforts, such as United Nations conventions, by the international community to make TNCs and other businesses promote and protect human rights. To evaluate the effective enforceability of those conventions, it is essential to focus on the human rights issues that the conventions look after, and their strengths and weaknesses of in doing so. The number of initiatives and standards that are meant for corporate social responsibility has increased over the years (Report 4). They include international instruments such as treaties and declarations; nationally based standards such as constitutional provisions and national laws; certification schemes such as the Worldwide Responsible Apparel Production (WRAP); and voluntary initiatives that are adopted by businesses on a voluntary basis (Report 4). However, most of these initiatives except for some national standards are non-binding on companies, as they do not have any legal authority to regulate companies (Report 9). Moreover, nationally based standards may not often control the extraterritorial acts of TNCs (Business Human Rights 8). International laws can regulate corporations with regards to human rights issues in two ways, namely indirect and direct (Beyond Voluntarism 1). In contrast to various laws pertaining to companies, such as personal jury law, criminal law, company law and consumer law, International human rights law provides a universal benchmark to objectively measure the behaviour of companies (Beyond Voluntarism 3). Indirect form requires states to observe that companies respect human rights and that failure to do so result in legal consequences, whereas direct form imposes direct obligations on companies (Beyond Voluntarism 3). Accordingly, various conventions, which are listed below, serve in observing the compliance of TNCs with human rights issues.International Covenant on the Elimination of All Forms of RacialDiscrimination (ICERD 1965) (Beyond Voluntarism 22) International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR1966) (Beyond Voluntarism 22) International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR 1966) (Beyond Voluntarism 22)Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination againstWomen (CEDAW 1979) (Beyond Voluntarism 22)Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading (Beyond Voluntarism 22) (Beyond Voluntarism 22)Treatment or Punishment (CAT 1984) (Beyond Voluntarism 22)Convention on the Rig hts of the Child (CRC 989) (Beyond Voluntarism 22)International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All MigrantWorkers and Members of Their Families (ICPRMW 1990) (Beyond Voluntarism 22) Apart from these, the International Labour Organisation (ILO) has formed many treaties to cover various rights for workers, especially concerning health and safety issues, prohibitions on forced and child labour, and the right to organize unions (Beyond Voluntarism 22). These conventions help in regulating companies with respect to various aspects of the human rights, such as non-discrimination; womens rights; life, liberty and physical integrity of the person; civic freedoms; employees rights; child labour; slavery, forced and bonded labour; economic, social and cultural rights; and voluntarism and market forces(Beyond Voluntarism 7-34). Conventions require states to regulate and adjudicate corporate activities with regard to rights capable of abuse by private parties (Background Pa per 2). However, these conventions do not often direct obligations to corporations. Instead, they focus on measures to be taken by states to control any corporate abuses with respect to human rights (Background Paper 2). Nevertheless, conventions related to most recently adopted treaties such as ICRMW and ICRPD specifically mention businesses in this regard (Background Paper 3).Different treaty bodies related to respective conventions focus more on certain types of companies and businesses than others that states need to formulate regulations to protect against abuse with respect to human rights by those companies (Background Paper 3). To be precise, states need to take necessary steps to regulate the acts of logging and property development companies in the context of resource exploitation in the lands of indigenous people (Background Paper 3). Also, focus on healthcare does not pertain only to private healthcare providers but also includes pharmaceutical and manufacturing companie s that perform activities, which may threaten food and water resources (Background Paper 3). However, they need to have adequate and appropriate focus on other sectors and companies as well (Background Paper 3).Also, conventions require that states need to have various measures to effectively regulate and adjudicate corporate activities (Background Paper 3). The measures may range from legislative measures, to prohibit abuse and proscribe certain behaviour to administrative and judicial mechanisms to effectively investigate all complaints of human rights violations by companies (Background Paper 3). However, implementation of conventions guidelines depends on states own discretion (Background Paper 3). Also, states have to provide with appropriate remedial measures in case of human rights violations (Background Paper 3). However, there is no clarity in conventions whether regulation and adjudication should direct at respective corporate entity itself or natural persons acting on beh alf of that company (Background Paper 4). Moreover, there is no clear distinction in this regard between state and non-sate owned companies (Background Paper 4). Though some treaty bodies such as CESCR mentioned about state-owned facilities, it is not clear whether these facilities are similar to state-owned corporations (Background Paper 4).Territorial factor is crucial in regulating transnational corporations, as the convention do not directly control except for requiring respective states to do so. In view of this, states may control the activities of companies outside the states national territories through a legislation called prescriptive extraterritorial jurisdiction (Background Paper 5). However, such control needs to consider various aspects such as the nationality of offenders and/or victims, territory where the company has violated human rights, and non-intervention of other states internal affairs (Background Paper 4). From the above discussion, there are certain weakne sses for conventions that prevent them from being effectively enforceable. Conventions are mostly non-binding on companies. The system only works when the potential violators of human rights prefer it to work. Also, states can follow the guidelines of those conventions on their own discretion. In the current state, conventions do not give adequate reference to all sectors and/or companies. Moreover, there is no clarity on the roles of the states in dealing with the acts of state-owned and non-state owned companies. As conventions do not directly influence and/or regulate transnational corporations, states cannot effectively regulate and adjudicate the acts of companies outside states national territories for various reasons such as trans-border limitations. Also, states may be reluctant in enforcing the spirit of conventions states when there is connivance between a state and a TNC in which the state may benefit from the failure to enforce human rights obligations (Deva 26). States may ignore human rights obligations to attract foreign investments (Deva 26). Also, some developing states may not have adequate legal and/or economic capability to enforce HR obligations (Deva 26). Furthermore, differences in legal systems among states may be another problem (Deva 26). Above all, there are no clear sanctions that are enforceable by any convention when a transnational corporation violates human rights (Deva 10). There are several examples to explain the ineffectiveness of conventions in enforcing human rights obligations. To start with, Malaysia became a signor to the UNs CRC in 1995 (qtd. in Shirali 1). After five years, the Malaysian government started to contravene the convention with the flow of foreign investments into the country (Shirali 1). Transnational companies like Nike and Reebok were allowed to exploit Malaysias children, making them work for long hours, often twelve hours a day, with scheduled bathroom breaks (Shirali 1). This is in absolute contras t with Section 1 of Article 19 of the convention that reads: State Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment, or exploitation (qtd. in Shirali 1). Thus, the above mentioned act was a clear violation of the convention. However, neither the Malaysian government nor respective transnational companies had to face economic or any other kind of sanctions (Shirali 1). It explains that the indirect approach of conventions, in which states are required to regulate transnational companies and other businesses at their own discretion, is not effective in protecting human rights. In another example of human rights violation, Banco Santander Central Hispano (SCH) is Spanish bank, which is the largest private bank in Latin America and the Caribbean (Banco Santander 1). SCH is accused as a co-responsible entity in relation to the displacement of 1.4 million local people most of who are rubber producers, nut collectors and fishermen (Banco Santander 1). Nearly 5,000 families will become landless due to the lack of any plans for their resettlement or compensation (Banco Santander 1). Also, the construction will impact the drinking water in that region, increasing the malaria cases simultaneously (Banco Santander 1). In spite of its intensive corporate responsibility drive, SCH has failed to achieve compliance with weak international laws that regulate the actions of an international bank (Banco Santander 1). The United Nations ICESCR andILO's169 Convention lack the necessary enforceability to address the grievances of respective indigenous people (Banco Santander 1). To address the issues of ineffectiveness of conventions UN has proposed some norms to protect human rights from potential violations of TNCs. Accordingly, TNCs need to be compliant with the norms and submit to monitoring by the UN and other entities on their application of the Norms (Braaten 6). Though the mechanism seems like encouraging a direct approach by making TNCs directly responsible with human rights obligations, it still lacks clarity on how to implement the mechanism and the judicial validity of it (Braaten 7). To conclude, conventions are helpful in providing guideline to states on protecting and promoting human rights with regard to transnational corporations and other businesses. However, the lack of a direct approach and other related mechanisms to treat companies as directly responsible entities makes these conventions not so effective in protecting human rights.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

NCI corporation Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

NCI corporation - Assignment Example This is the margin NCI corporation already had the capability to produce for the casket market. On the other side, the traditional margin for manufacturing the caskets was about 23%. On average, 23% is the operating margin NCI Corporation previously incurred for the new product. The increase in the number of discounters in the casket market results to reduced prices of caskets. , the margin increases with the increase in the casket suppliers in the market. The discounters such as the wholesalers, retailers, and other manufacturers do not incur the similar costs incurred by the funeral homes. Therefore, they sell the caskets cheaply and still make a profit because there are low production costs involved. In addition, the discounters sell caskets in large scale thereby enjoying the economies of scale. The number of caskets, I will sell to the different target purchasers depend heavily on the respective buying price the target buyer will offer. I will provide 50 Caskets to the funeral homes. This will be the highest number of caskets I would like to sell. To the retailers, I expect to sell around 60 caskets while the wholesalers will get around 100 caskets. To achieve the figures, I assumed a constant 40 % margin and particular profits for each purchaser target. For instance, I assumed $ 500,000 profit in the case of funeral homes, $ 180,000 profit in the case of the retailers and $ 250,000. In addition, I assumed $ 50,000 net income, $ 120,000 capital expenditure and investment return worth $ 250,000. 1. There are various risks associated with NCI’s entry into the casket selling. First, the firm risk losing all the retrenched workers. Secondly, involvement in the new business is risky since neither Roger nor his adviser knows about the marketing of the products. Lastly, the firm risks getting customers for her products since nobody in the business knows the targeted consumers for the caskets. 2. The firm’s sale will increase at the rate of diminishing